Effect of wildfire smog on trees

Lately I came across this article about the effect of ground-level ozone due to wildfire on plants by National Park Service:

But, ground-level ozone can harm plants as well as human health. It does not come directly from smokestacks or vehicles, but instead is formed when other pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, react in the atmosphere in the presence of sunlight. Ozone causes considerable damage to plants around the world, including agricultural crops and plants in natural ecosystems…Ozone damages plants by entering leaf openings called stomata and oxidizing (burning) plant tissue during respiration. This damages the plant leaves and causes reduced survival.

Other sources has shown the effect of pollution on agricultural plants:

Although the effects of warming to date are not statistically significant for many perennial crops, the yields of most perennials show a significant negative response to ambient ozone, ranging from −2% for strawberries to −22% for table grapes, implying total losses of roughly US$1 billion per year.

I live in Palo Alto CA, and through the wildfire season have not noticed any short term effect on any of my plants. I wonder if anyone has noticed any short-term/long term effects through out the years?

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Wow, thanks for the heads up! This is the first good data I’ve seen about how trees might be affected by the change in air quality. Now I’m curious about how much exposure to how much ozone, let alone the small particles in the air, can be expected to cause measurable effects on our trees.

I have yet to see any changes in tree health, but at a local nursery the trees are looking greener than normal - possibly due to the combination of warm weather with reduced light that resulted from the smoke in the air.

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