All good points, the initial question focussed on inducing growth down low. The techniques and conditions required for that to happen involve several factors. The primary factor is what is the plan for the tree. This determines when the apical growth is dialed back and the focus becomes bud back. When the apical growth is encouraged again and then when refinement begins. As mentioned above, providing the proper conditions for growth, sun, air, water and nutrients are important. Proper pruning techniques applied to affect a response ( backbudding ) or allowing apical growth to affect a response ( thickening ). These techniques need to be used in combination with proper growth conditions.
So in short, the plan for the tree determines when to induce budback and lateral growth and when to encourage larger trunk, thicker branches. On a smaller size Black Pine, i would cut back the main sacrifice leader in year three or four if needed to encourage low branching. But i would do so with a replacement sacrifice leader already chosen and wired up at the same time. Thus i would be able to continue the trunk growth while hopefully inducing some lower branches to work with down the road. Changing the sacrifice leader also helps to keep the size of scars to heal to a minimum. The goal is to end up with a trunk free of large scars and with better movement and taper.